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By 1218, Genghis Khan had actually united the Mongols and also together they had conquered northern China. The had expanded westward as well by conquering Kara-Khitai and also were collecting tribute native Korea. They an initial encountered the realm of Khorezm, which extended from the Aral Sea to the Persian Gulf in one direction and from Iraq to India in the other. The empire was led through the shah Ala ad-Din Mohammed II. He also had design of China, and was miffed the Mongols had acquired their first.

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As the means of things, envoys met and also exchanged high-quality gifts. The Mongols sent out jade, ivory, gold, cloaks of rarely white camel structure to Samarkand, the Shah’s capital. Representatives were received and also treated cordially on both sides. A Mongol entourage come in Kunya Urgench in 1218 and discussed the possibility of trade. Every one of this appeared positive, however, when a Mongol profession caravan the 450 men was sent right into Utrar things did no go well. Governor Inalchek sent word back to the shaman he suspected the caravan was full of spies. The shah agreed and also the the caravan was eliminated all but a solitary man and their items were added to the city coffers. This did no go over well with Genghis Khan, who apparently wept tears that anger over the incident. Ambassadors were promptly dispatched to need recompense and that governor Inalchek be handed over for punishment. The Shah eliminated one ambassadors and sent the various other two back after setup their beards top top fire. Genghis Khan shed his mind since as one chronicler put it, “Mongols thought in the absolute inviolability the ambassadors.” The Shah simply poked the bear.

After structure an army for a year, Genghis Khan increased a pressure of much more than 200,000 troops with local prisoners required to march prior to them as a human shield. An initial stop, Utrar. Regardless of fierce resistance whereby defenders threw naphtha—probably a stubborn-burning mixture the sulfur, niter, and also petroleum- and the very bricks under at the conquerors, the city to be overpowered. The hapless branch Inalcheck was brought alive come the Khan that poured molten gold under his throat and into his ears. Ouch. In the meantime, the shah had divided his forces and deployed lock in different cities. Each division would act on its very own authority. Every one of the Shah’s army advisors, including his son Jalladin Menguberdi, believed this was a damaging idea. Indeed, the Shah’s refusal to mount a united defense doomed his realm to conquest.

Then Bukhara, wherein the main mosque to be destroyed. He declared to them, “I am the Flail that God. If you had not committed good sins, God would not have actually sent a punishment choose me top top you.” that then had actually the cases for the Koran were offered as horses’ mangers. The libraries through their centuries of expertise were reduced to ash. Upwards of three hundred thousand human being were killed that day. Women were raped and also enslaved through their children, wealth were despoiled when the khan drank fermented mare’s milk and listened come music. Anyone with a beneficial profession, one artisan or builder, was sent to the capital in Mongolia. Those that live were permitted to escape come tell their tale of fear to the other cities in the region. Come teach them the wrath of the Mongols to be a an extremely real and also terrible thing. The following city the Kunya Urgench to be supposedly wiped off the map because that its rebellion. Legend states the Mongols dammed the Oxus river for three centuries resulting in it to circulation into the Caspian Sea instead of the Aral end the smoking ruins of Kunya Urgench.

Next stop, Samarkand. The world of Samarkand weren’t dumb and also opened the gates to the Mongols. Those who did not surrender visited the huge wooden mosque because that Friday prayers. The Mongols shed it over your heads. They ongoing on through the remainder of the Muslim cities follow me the Silk roadway bringing fire and also destruction. Those that surrendered no safe. In Balkh they to be massacred anyway, “divided up according to the usual custom right into hundreds and thousands come be placed to the sword.” In Nishapur, it was stated they even killed the animals.

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The Shah, needless come say, was terrified and also high tailed it. He was able to stay one action ahead of the Mogols as his child Jalladin continued to fight. The shah made it to the city of Astara, where he put on a disguise of beggar’s rags and escaped to a small island in the Caspian Sea. Over there he passed away naming his kid as his heir. However, the empire of Khorezm never ever recovered.